|AR-RaheeQ Al-Makhtum |
(THE SEALED NECTAR)
Memoirs of the Noble Prophet
Author: Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
Jamia Salafia - India- .
Translated by: Issam Diab .
The third and last stage of thelife of the Messenger embodies the fruitfulresults of his call to Islam, which were the consequences of long-timedholy fights in the way of Allah (Jihad), troubles, toil,disturbances, trials and a lot of bloody conflicts and battles,which lasted for over twenty years.
The conquest of Makkah wasconsidered the most serious profit achieved by Muslims duringthose years. For it affected the course of events andconsequently altered the Arabs's whole life. It was a decisivedistinction between preconquest and post-conquest periods. ForQuraish, at that time, was in the eyes of Arabs the defenders andhelpers of Arabs. Other Arabs are only their ancillaries. Thesubmission of Quraish is, therefore, estimated to be a finalelimination of paganism in the Arabian Peninsula.
This stage can be divided intotwo main phases:
The phase of: (1) holy wars andfighting.
(2) the tribes and people'srace to embrace Islam.
Being so close and ratherinseparable, the two phases of this stage intervene in such a waythat a happening of one phase occurs during the progress of theother. However, we have preferred ' for expository purposes 'to deal with these two phases distinctively. The fighting phasewas given the priority in order, due to the fact that it is moreintimate and fit than the other.
The conquest of Makkah whichcame forth as a consequence of a swift blow astounded both theArabs and other tribes who realized that they were doomed and hadto submit to the new situation as a faitaccompli.Some of the fierce, powerful proud tribes did not submit andfavoured resistance. Ahead of these were the septs of Hawazin andThaqif. Nasr, Jashm and Sa�d bin Bakr and people of Bani Hilal� all of whom of Qais �Ailan. They thought that they were toomighty to admit or surrender to such a victory. So they met Malikbin �Awf An-Nasri and made up their mind to proceed fightingagainst the Muslims.
The Enemy�s March and theirEncampment at Awtas:
When Malik bin �Awf � thegeneral leader � decided to march and fight the Muslims, hemade his countrypeople take their wealth, women and children withthem to Awtas � which is a valley in Hawazin land and is quitenear Hunain. It differs from Hunain in its being adjacent to Dhi-Al-Majazwhich is around ten miles from Makkah in �Arafat�s direction.
The War-experienced Manwrongs the Leader�s Judgement:
As soon as they had camped inAwtas, people crowded round Malik. The old sane Duraid bin As-Simmah,who was well-known as a war-experienced man, and who was amongthose who gathered round Malik, asked: 'What valley are wein?' 'In Awtas,' they said. 'What a goodcourse it is for horses! It is neither a sharp pointed height nora loosed soiled plain. What? Why do I hear camels� growling,the donkeys� braying, the children's cries and the sheepbleating?' asked Duraid. They said: 'Malik bin �Awfhad made people bring their women, properties and children withthem.' So he called Malik and asked him what made him dosuch a thing. Malik said that his aim was to have everybody�sfamily and properties around them so that they fight fiercely toprotect them.' 'I swear by Allah that you are nothingbut a shepherd,' answered Duraid, 'Do you believe thatthere is anything whatsoever, can stand in the way of a defeatedone or stop him from fleeing? If you win the battle you availnothing but a man with a sword and a spear; but if you lose youwill bring disgrace on your people and properties,' then heresumed his talk and went on wondering about some septs and theirleaders. 'O Malik, thrusting the distinguished people ofHawazin into the battlefield will avail you nothing. Raise themup to where they can be safe. Then make the young people mounttheir horses and fight. If you win, those whom you tarried willfollow you, but if you were the loser it would be a loss of abattle, but your kinsmen, people and properties would not be lost.'
But Malik, the general leader,refused this suggestion. 'By Allah,' he said, 'Iwill not do such a thing. You must have grown a senile. Hawazinhave to obey me, or else I will lean my body against this swordso that it penetrates through my back.' He rejected any sortof contribution of Duraid�s in that concern.
'We obey you,' saidhis people, Duraid consequently said: 'Today is a day that Ihave not missed but surely I will not be tempted to witness.'
Reconnoitering the Weapons ofthe Messenger of Allah :
The spies that Malik had alreadydispatched to spy Muslim forces, returned with their limbs cutoff. 'Woe unto you! What happened to you?' Said Malik.They said: 'We have seen distinguished people on spottedhorsebacks. What you see, would not have happened if we had beenfirmly together.'
Reconnoitering the Enemy�sWeapons:
News about the enemy'smarching were conveyed to the Messenger of Allah , so he sent out Al-Aslamiwith orders to mix with people, stay with them so that he wouldbe able to know their news and to convey it to the Messenger ofAllah when heturns back. That was exactly what he managed to do.
The Messenger of All�h leaves Makkah forHunain:
On Shawwal, the nineteenth, thecaptive day, the Messenger of Allah left Makkah accompaniedby twelve thousand Muslims. Ten thousand of those had previouslyshared in Makkah Conquest. A great number of the other twothousand, who were Makkans, had recently embraced Islam. Thatmarch was on the nineteenth day of his conquest to Makkah. Heborrowed a hundred armours with their equipment from Safwan binOmaiyah. He appointed �Itab bin Usaid as a governor over Makkah.When it was evening time, a horseman came to the Messenger of Allah and said: 'Ihave climbed up so and so mountains and came across Hawazin withtheir riding camels, livestock and sheep. Hawazin wholly weregathered together there.' The Messenger of Allah smiled then and said:'They will all be Muslims spoils tomorrow, if Allah will.'That night Anas bin Abi Murthid Al-Ghanawi volunteered to guard.
On their way to Hunain they sawa great green Nabk plant, that was called Dhat-Anwat(the one with suspenders). That was because the Arabs used tohang their weapons on it, slay beasts under it and keep to it. Sosome of army members asked the Messenger of Allah to make them a Nabkwith suspenders as the one they had. 'Allah is the Greatestof all!' He said, 'I swear by the One in Whose Hand isMuhammad's soul, that you have just said what the people ofMoses said to him. They said 'Make us a god as the one theyhave.' Surely you are ignorant people. These are Sunnah,but you will follow and comply with the modes of life of thosewho preceded you.'
Seeing how great in number thearmy was, some of them said: 'We shall not be defeated.'Their statement sounded hard upon the Messenger of Allah .
The Islamic Army stunned theArchers and the Attackers:
On Wednesday night the tenth ofShawwal, the Muslim army arrived at Hunain. Malik bin �Awf, whohad previously entered the valley by night, gave orders to hisarmy to hide inside the valley and lurk for the Muslims on roads,entrances, narrow hiding places. His orders to his men were tohurl stones at Muslims whenever they caught sight of them andthen to make a one-man attack against them.
At early dawn the Messenger ofAllah startedmobilizing his army and distributing posts and flags to people.In the dark and just before dawn the Muslims moved towards HunainValley. They started descending into it unaware of the presenceof an enemy lurking for them inside the valley. So at the momentthey were camping, arrows began showering intensively at them,whereas the enemy's battalions started a fierce attack againstthe Muslims, who had to retreat in disorder and utter confusion.It was such a shatteringly defeat that Abu Sufyan bin Harb, whohad recently embraced Islam, said that their retreat would notstop till they got to the Red Sea. Jablah or Kildah bin Al-Junaidcommented on that by saying: 'Surely magic has growninactive today.'
The Messenger of Allah turned to the right andsaid: 'Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allah. I amMuhammad, the son of Abdullah.' Those who stoodfast by himwere only few Emigrants and some of his kinsmen. The matchlessbravery of the Prophet was then brought tolight. He went on and on in his attempts to make his mulestandfast in the face of the disbelievers while saying loudly:
I am the (grand) son of Abdul Muttalib.'
However, Abu Sufyan, who wasthen holding the rein of the Prophet's mule, and Al-Abbas,who was holding its stirrup; were endeavouring to make it halt.The Messenger of Allah dismounted and asked hisLord to render him help.
Mulsims return to theBattlefield, and the fierceness of the Fight:
The Messenger of Allah ordered his uncle Al-Abbas who was a sonorous voiced man to call out on the followers. As loudly as he could, Al-Abbas shouted: 'Whereare the lancers?' 'By Allah,' Al-Abbas said,'Upon hearing my voice calling them back, they turned roundto the battlefield as if they had been oryxes (wild cows) tendingtowards their calves.'
'Here we are, at yourservice. Here we are.'
Those who were called out uponnext were Al-Ansar, the Helpers, 'O, folks of Al-Ansar!Folks of Al-Ansar!'
The last group to be called outupon were Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj. Muslims battalionspoured successively into the battlefield in the same manner thatthey had left it. The stamina of both parties was superb. Both ofthem stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Messenger of Allah was so eagerly andfuriously watching the battle that he said:
Picking up a handful of earth,he hurled it at their faces while saying:
Their eyes were thick with dustand the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion.
Reverse of Fortunes and theEnemy�s utter Defeat:
Few hours had elapsed since theearth-handful was hurled at the enemy's faces, when they wereshatteringly defeated. About seventy men of Thaqif alone werekilled, and the Muslims plundered all their riding camels,weapons and cattle.
Allah, Glory is to Him, alludedto this sudden change in the Quran when He said:
Hot Pursuit of the Enemy:
After their defeat, some enemytroops headed for Taif, others to Nakhlah and Awtas. A groupof Muslims headed by Abu �Amir Al-Ash� ari, were despatchedto chase the enemy, some skirmishes took place during which Abu�Amir was killed.
A similar battalion of horsemenpursued the idolaters who threaded the track to Nakhlah andcaught up with Duraid bin As-Simmah, who was killed by Rabi�abin Rafi�. After collecting the booty, the Messenger of Allah left for Taif to facethe greatest number of the defeated idolaters. The booty was sixthousand captives, twenty four thousand camels; over fortythousand sheep and four thousand silver ounces. The Messenger ofAllah gave ordersthat booty should be confined at Al-J�iranah and ordained Mas�udbin �Amr Al-Ghifari to be in charge of it. It was only when hewas entirely free from Taif Campaign, that one of the captivesAs-Shaim�, the daughter of Al-Harith As-Sadiya, theMessenger's foster sister was brought to the Messenger of Allah, she introducedherself to him. Upon recognizing her by a certain mark, hehonoured her, spread for her his garment and seated her on it. Hewas graceful and released her and made her turn back to herpeople.
Taif Campaign is in fact anextension of Hunain Ghazwah; that is because the majorityof the defeated troops of Hawazin and Thaqif went into Taifwith the general commander � Malik bin �Awf An-Nasri � andfortified themselves within it. So upon finishing with HunainInvasion, he gathered the booty at Al-Ji�ranah in the verymonth (i.e. Shawwal) and in the eighth year A.H.
A vanguard battalion of athousand men led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed marched towards At-Taif.Whereas the Messenger of Allah proceeded passingthrough Nakhlah Al-Yamaniyah, Qarn Al-Manazil and through Laiyah.At Laiyah there was a castle that belonged to Malik bin �Awf,so the Messenger of Allah gave orders to have itdestroyed. He resumed his march till he got to Taif. There hedismounted, camped near its castle and laid siege to the castleinhabitants; but not for long.
How long the siege continued, isstill a matter of disagreement. It however stands between 10-20days.
A lot of arrow-shooting and rock-hurlingoccurred during the siege. For as soon as the Muslims laid siegeround the castle, its people started shooting arrows against them.The arrows were so intense and fierce that they looked as if theyhad been locusts on the move. A number of Muslims were woundedand twelve were killed.
To be far from the arrow-range,the Muslims had to ascend to a higher location and camped on i.e. to what is now called At-Taif Mosque. The Prophet set up a mangonel andshelled the castle. Eventually a gap was made in the castle wall,through which a number of Muslims managed to pass into thecastle, sheltered by a wooden tank, with the purpose of settingfire into it. Anyway, the enemy poured down molten hot iron onthem. Affected by this the Muslims stepped out of the tank andwere again exposed to arrow shooting and consequently some ofthem were killed.
To force the enemy to surrender,the Prophet tendedto a war policy of burning and cutting the enemy's crops. Hisorder was to cut their vineyards and burn them. Seeing that theMuslims started rapidly cutting and burning their vines, theyimplored the Prophet to stop and have mercy on them for the sake of Allah and out ofkinship motives. So the Prophet agreed. When the caller of theMessenger of Allah called out unto people saying 'He whosoever descends andsteps out of the castle is free.' Twenty-three men came out.
Seeing that the siege lasted toolong and that the castle was immune and could stand any siege (forthey had already stored a supply that suffices for over a year)and that the Muslims were suffering day by day from arrow-shotsand heated iron hooks, the Messenger of Allah consulted Nawfal bin Mu��wiyahAd-Daili about that. He said: 'They are like a fox hidinginside its burrow. If you stoodfast at it you would catch it, butif you parted with it, no harm would afflict you.' TheMessenger of Allah decided to lift the siege and depart. Umar bin Al-Khattab, whowas ordered by the Prophet to notify people, said to them 'IfAllah will, we are leaving the castle and going back tomorrow.'As it was too hard for the Muslims to go back and leave thecastle unconquered they complained saying, 'Should we goaway while the castle is still unopened?' His reply was:'Then, start fighting in the morning.' In the morningthey fought and were wounded. So when he repeated this statement:'If Allah will, we are leaving the castle and going backtomorrow', they were pleased and carried out the ordersubmissively and started moving, which made the Messenger of Allah laugh.
As soon as they mounted andstarted moving the Messenger said:
When the Messenger of Allah wasasked to invoke Allah against Thaqif, he said:
The Distribution of the Bootyat Al-Ji�ranah:
Upon returning and lifting thesiege in Taif, the Messenger of Allah had stayed over tennights at Al-Ji�ranah before starting to distribute the booty.Distribution delay was due to the Prophet's hope that Hawazin'sdelegation might arrive and announce their repentance andconsequently reclaim their loss. Seeing that none of themarrived, he started dividing the booty so as to calm down thetribes� chiefs and the celebrities of Makkah. The first toreceive booty and the ones who obtained the greatest number ofshares were the people who had recently embraced Islam.
Abu Sufyan bin Harb was given ahundred camels and forty (gold) ounces and yet he said, 'Whatabout my son, Yazeed's Share?' So he was given the samequantity for his son as well. But yet he exclaimed: 'Andwhat about the share of Mu��wiyah, my second son?' So theProphet gave Mu��wiyahas much as he gave his father and brother. Hakeem bin Hizam wasgiven a hundred camels, but he was given a hundred more when hedemanded. Safwan bin Omaiyah was given three hundred camels - ahundred camels at each time. It is thus mentioned in Shif�
Eventually it was spread amongpeople that 'Muhammad grants generously and fears not togrow poor.' This made bedouins gather around him expectingto be given some wealth. They were so many that they forced theProphet to seekrefuge against a tree and they even took away his garment, 'Opeople!' He said, 'Give me back my garment! For I swearby the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad's soul, that if I had asmany numerous camels as the number of Tihama trees, I woulddistribute them among you. You know quite well that I am neithermean nor coward or a liar.' Standing by his camel he pluckedout a hair of his camels hump and held it between his twofingers, lifted it up and said: 'O people, I swear by Allahthat I get nothing but one-fifth of your booty, and this veryfifth goes back to you.'
As soon as he had given the newconverts, the Messenger of Allah ordered Zaid bin Thabitto fetch the booty and summon people. Then he ordained shares topeople. A footman's share was four camels and forty sheep, anda horseman would take twelve camels and a hundred and twentysheep. This distribution of booty was based on a wise policy. Inthis world there are lots of people who know the truth only whenit comes through their stomachs and they do not recognize it ifit comes through their brains. The similitude of such people isas the guidance of an animal to its herd by means of a bunch ofclover held at a constant distance off its mouth. The animalwould try all the time to catch it, so it would eventually gointo the herd safely. In the same way you have to do variouskinds of temptations to make certain kind of people familiarizeIslam and be pleased with.
The Helpers (Al-Ansar)are furious at the Messenger of All�h :
At first the Prophet's policyof distribution was uncomprehended by many a man. Therefore sharp-tonguedpeople started expressing their objections. The Helpers wereamong those who were afflicted by this policy. They were deprivedof Hunain gifts though they had been the ones who were summonedat Hunain hard times and they were the first to rush to fightwith the Messenger of Allah and standfast till thedefeat turned into victory. Now here they are watching those whoescaped fill their hands with booty while they are given nothing.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq:'When the Messenger of Allah had given Quraish andArab tribes those gifts and allotted nothing to the Helpers, agroup of the Helpers felt so uneasy about it that a lot of ill-statementsagainst the Prophet were spread among them to an extent that one of them said: 'ByAllah, the Messenger of Allah was ill-spoken of by hisfolksmen!' And those ill-statements went on spreading tillSa�d bin �Ubadah met the Messenger of Allah , who in his turn facedhis people after a while.
Sa�d bin �Ubadah said:'O Messenger of Allah, this group of the Helpers arefurious at you about the distribution of the booty that you hadwon. You have allotted shares to your own kinsmen and forwardedlots of gifts to the Arab tribes. But this group has obtainednothing.' The Prophet asked Sa�d exclaiming:'Sa�d, what do you think of all that?' Sa�d replied:'O Messenger of Allah. You know that I am nothing but amember of this group.' 'Call out on your people andbring them forth to me into this shed.' Said the Prophet .
So Sa�d went out and summonedthem. When some Emigrants came, he let them in but forbade others.When they were all gathered together, he informed the Prophetsaying: 'This group of the Helpers have just arrived to meetyou in compliance with your orders.' As soon as theMessenger facedthem he thanked Allah and praised Him, then said to theminquiring, 'I have been told that you are angry with me.Didn't I come to you when you were astray and Allah guidedyou? You were poor and Allah gave you wealth. Weren't you foesand Allah made you love one another.' 'Yes,' theysaid, 'Allah and His Messenger are better and more gracious.'Then he said: 'What prevents you from replying to theMessenger of Allah, O tribe of Helpers?' They said, 'Whatshould be the reply, O Messenger of Allah, while to the Lord andto his Messenger belong all benevolence and grace.'
The Prophet again said:
You Helpers, do you feel anxious for the things of this world, wherewith I have sought to incline these people unto the Faith in which you are already established?
Are you not satisfied, O group of Helpers that the people go with ewes and camels while you go along with the Messenger of Allah () to your dwellings. By Him in Whose Hand is my life, had there been no migration, I would have been one of the Helpers. If the people would go through a valley and passage, and the Helpers go through another valley and passage, I would go through the valley and passage of the Helpers. Allah! Have mercy on the Helpers, their children and their children's children.'
The audience wept until tearsrolled down their beards as they said:
Then the Prophet left the gathering andthe people also dispersed.
Arrival of the HawazinDelegation:
Hawazin's delegation arrived aMuslims just after the distribution of spoils. They were fourteenmen headed by Zuhair bin Sard. The Messenger's foster uncle wasone of them. They asked him to bestow upon them some of thewealth and spoils. They uttered so touching words that theMessenger of All'h said to them: 'You surely see who are with me. The mostdesirable speech to me is the most truthful. Which is dearer toyou, your wealth or your women and children?' They replied:'Nothing whatsoever compares with kinship.' Then when Iperform the noon prayer, stand up and say: 'We intercedewith the Messenger of Allah to exhort the believers,and we intercede with the believers to exhort the Messenger ofAllah to foregothe captives of our people fallen to their lot.' So when theMessenger of Allah performed the noon prayer, they stood up and said what they hadbeen told to say. The Messenger , then, said: 'Asfor what belongs to me and to the children of Abdul Muttalib, youmay consider them, from now on, yours. And I will ask my folksmento give back theirs.' Upon hearing that the Emigrants andthe Helpers said: 'What belongs to us is, from now on,offered to the Messenger of Allah .' But Al-Aqra�bin Habis said, 'We will grant none of what belongs to meand to Bani Tamim,'; so did �Uyaina bin Hisn, who said:'As for me and Bani Fazarah, I say �No�.' Al-�Abbasbin Mirdas also refused and said: 'No' for Bani Saleemand him. His people, however, said otherwise: 'Whateverspoils belong to us we offer to the Messenger of Allah (.)' 'You haveundermined my position.' Said Al-�Abbas bin Mirdasspontaneously. Then the Messenger of Allah said: 'These peoplehave come to you as Muslims. For this I have already tarried thedistribution of the booty. Besides, I have granted them a fairoption but they refused to have anything other than their womenand children. Therefore he who has some of theirs and will preferwillingly to give them back, let them do. But those who favoursto keep what he owns to himself, let them grant them back too,and he will be given as a recompense six times as much from thefirst booty that Allah may provide us.' People then said,'We will willingly offer them all for the sake of theMessenger of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah said: 'But in thisway we are not able to find out who is content and who is not. Sogo back and we will be waiting for your chiefs to convey to usyour decisions.' All of them gave back the women andchildren. The only one who refused to comply with the Messenger'sdesire was �Uyaina bin Hisn. He refused to let an old woman oftheirs go back at first. Later on he let her go back. TheMessenger of Allah gave every captive a garment as a gift.
Lesser Pilgrimage (Al-�Umrah)to Makkah and leaving for Madinah:
Having accomplished thedistribution of the spoils at Al-Ji�ranah he left it whilewearing Al-Umrah clothes and proceeded to Makkah toperform Al-Umrah. The Messenger of Allah turned back from thereto Madinah after appointing �Itab bin Usaid on Makkah asgovernor. His arrival to Madinah was by the last six nights ofDhul-Qa�dah, in the year 8 A.H. On this occasion Muhammad Al-Ghazalisaid:
'What a great change it isbetween the victorious period of Muhammad at present which Allahhas towered with a manifest conquest, and that period of the pastduring which Muhammad first arrived at this town, eight years ago.'
When he first came to Madinah,he was pursued and wanted. He was seeking a secure shelter. Hewas a lonely stranger who sought companionship and comfort. Thepeople of Madinah welcomed him, gave him residence and aided himand embraced the light of Islam, which had been sent down uponhim. They, for his sake, did not care about the enmity of otherpeoples. Here he is entering Madinah again, after the lapse ofeight years of that first visit. Madinah, the town that hadreceived him once, when he was a frightened Emigrant; it receiveshim once again when Makkah has become in his hands and at hisdisposal. It is Makkah that has got rid of its pride and Jahiliyah(i.e. pre-Islamic period and traditions). It is now proudagain and mighty in Islam. The Messenger of Allah forgave allthe errors and wrongs of its people.
Upon returning from this longsuccessful travel, the Messenger of Allah stayed in Madinah wherehe received delegates and dispatched agents and appointedpreachers and callers to Islam everywhere. Those whose heartswere still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were tooproud to embrace Allah's religion, were decisively muffled ontheir non-acquiescence in the status quo prevalent then inArabia.
Here is a mini-image about thebelieved ones. We have already stated that the Messenger'sarrival in Madinah was by the last days of the eighth year of Al-Hijra.No sooner the crescent of Muharram of the ninth year turned upthan the Messenger of Allah dispatched the believedones, to the tribes as shown in the list below:
2. Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar.
3. �Abbad bin Bishr Al-Ashhali to Sulaim and Muzainah.
4. Rafi� bin Mukaith to Juhainah.
5. �Amr bin Al-�As to Bani Fazarah.
6. Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan to Bani Kilab.
7. Basheer bin Sufyan to Bani Ka�b.
8. Ibn Al-Lutabiyah Al-Azdi to Bani Dhubyan.
9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi Omaiyah to Sana�a� (Al-Aswad Al-�Ansi called at him when he was in it).
10. Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout.
11. �Adi bin Hatim to Tai� and Bani Asad.
12. Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah.
13. Az-Zabraqan bin Badr to Bani Sa�d (a portion of them).
14. Qais bin �Asim to Bani Sa�d (a portion of them).
15. Al-�Al� bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain.
16. �Ali bin Abi Talib to Najran (to collect Sadaqa & Jizya).
Some of these agents weredespatched in Muharram, 7 A.H., others were sent later until thetribes they were heading for had completely converted into Islam.Such a move clearly demonstrates the great success that theIslamic Daawah (Call) enjoyed after Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty.However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began toembrace Islam in large hosts.
In the same way that thebelieved ones were dispatched to the tribes, we understand thatdispatching some more platoons to all regions of Arabia is anecessity for the prevalence and domination of security on alllands of Arabia.
Here is a list of those platoons:
Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of �Adi bin Hatim begged the Messenger of Allah to have mercy on her and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, my brother is absent and father is dead, and I am too old to render any service. Be beneficent to me so that Allah may be bountiful to you.' He said: 'Who is your brother?' She said: 'It is �Adi bin Hatim.' 'Is he not the one who fled from Allah and his Messenger?' Said the Prophet then went away from her. Next day she reiterated the same thing as the day before and received the same answer. A day later she uttered similar words, this time he made benefaction to her. The man who was beside the Prophet, and whom she thought to be �Ali, said to her: 'Ask for an animal from him to ride on.' And she was granted her request.
She returned to Ash-Sham where she met her brother and said to him: 'The Messenger of Allah has done me such noble deed that your father would never have done it. Therefore, willy-nilly, frightened or secure, you should go and see him.' Unsecure neither protected by some one, not even recommended by a letter as a means of protection, �Adi came and met the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah took him home with him. As soon as he sat before him, the Messenger of Allah thanked Allah and praised him, then said: 'What makes you flee? Do you flee lest you should say there is no god but Allah? Do you know any other god but Allah?' 'No' he said, then talked for a while. The Messenger of Allah went on saying: 'Certainly you flee so that you may not hear the statement saying �Allah is the Greatest.� Do you know anyone who is greater than Allah?' 'No' he said. 'The Jews are those whose portion is wrath, and the Christians are those who have gone astray,' the Prophet retorted. 'I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (Allah).' �Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face. The Prophet ordered him a residence with one of the Helpers. From that time he started calling at the Prophet in the mornings and in the evenings.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, when the Prophet made him sit down in front of him in his house, the Prophet said, 'O �Adi, were you not cast in disbelief?' 'Yes'. �Adi said. 'Did you not share one quarter of your people's gains?' 'Yes'. Said �Adi. The Messenger of Allah said: 'It is sinful in your religion to do such a thing, and you should not allow yourself to do it.' 'Yes, by Allah, that is true', said �Adi. 'Thus I worked out that he was a Prophet inspired by Allah, and sent to people. He knows what is unknown.'
In another version, the Prophet said: '�Adi, embrace Islam and you shall be secure.' 'But I am a man of religion.' Said �Adi. 'I know your religion better than you.' Said the Prophet. 'Do you know my religion better than me?' �Adi asked. The Prophet replied, 'Yes'. He said: 'Are you not cast in disbelief because you appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people's gains?' 'Yes'. Said �Adi. 'It is unlawful in your religion to do such a thing.' The Prophet said, and ��Adi added: 'He did not need to say it again for I immediately acquiesced it.'
Al-Bukhari narrates that �Adi said: While we were with the Prophet , a man came in and complained to him about poverty. Then another man came in and complained about highway robbery. The Messenger of Allah then said: 'O �Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you were doomed to live long life, you would be able to see a riding camel woman travel from Hirah till it circumambulates Al-Kabah fearing none but Allah; and if you were to live long enough you would open the treasures of Kisra. And if you were to live long you would be able to see man offering a handful of gold or silver to others but none accepts to take it.' At the end of this Hadith �Adi later on says: 'I have seen a riding camel woman travel from Al-Hirah till it circumambulates the Kabah fearing none but Allah, I have also been one of those who opened the treasures of Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life you would witness what the Prophet, Abul Qasim, had already said about �offering a handful of �� i.e. the Prophet�s prophecies did really come true.'
The Invasionof Tabuk
The invasion and the conquest ofMakkah was considered a decisive one between the truth and theerror. As a result of which, the Arabs had no more doubt inMuhammad's mission. Thus we see that things went contrary tothe pagans expectations. People started to embrace Islam, thereligion of Allah, in great numbers. This is manifested clearlyin the chapter � The delegations, of this book. It can also bededuced out of the enormous number of people who shared in the Hajjatul-Wad�(Farewell Pilgrimage). All domestic troubles came to an end.Muslims, eventually felt at ease and started setting up theteachings of Allah's Laws and intensifying the Call to Islam.
The underlying Reasons:
The Byzantine power, which wasconsidered the greatest military force on earth at that time,showed an unjustifiable opposition towards Muslims. As we havealready mentioned, their opposition started at killing theambassador of the Messenger of Allah , Al-Harith bin �UmairAl-Azdi, by Sharhabeel bin �Amr Al-Ghassani. The ambassador wasthen carrying a message from the Prophet to the ruler of Busra.We have also stated that the Prophet consequently dispatched abrigade under the command of Zaid bin Haritha, who had a fiercefight against the Byzantines at Mu�tah. Although Muslim forcescould not have revenge on those haughty overproud tyrants, theconfrontation itself had a great impression on the Arabs, allover Arabia.
Caesar � who could neitherignore the great benefit that Mu�tah Battle had brought toMuslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes expectationsof independence, and their hopes of getting free from hisinfluence and reign, nor he could ignore their alliance to theMuslims , realizing all that, Caesar was aware of theprogressive danger threatening his borders, especially Ash-Sham-frontswhich were neighbouring Arab lands. So he concluded thatdemolition of the Muslims power had grown an urgent necessity.This decision of his should, in his opinion, be achieved beforethe Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troublesand unrest in the adjacent Arab territories.
To meet these exigencies, Caesarmustered a huge army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanidetribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims.
General News about theByzantines and Ghassanide Preparations for War.
No sooner news about theByzantine's preparations for a decisive invasion againstMuslims reached Madinah than fear spread among them. They started to envisage the Byzantine invasion in the least sound they could hear. This could be clearly worked out of what had happened to Umar bin Al-Khattab one day.
The Prophet had taken an oath tostay off his wives for a month in the ninth year of Al-Hijra.Therefore, he deserted them and kept off in a private place. Atthe beginning, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah werepuzzled and could not work out the reason for such behaviour.They thought the Prophet had divorced them and that was why he was grieved, disturbed and upset. In Umar'sversion of the very story he says: 'I used to have a Helperfriend who often informed me about what happened if I weren'tpresent, and in return I always informed him of what had takenplace during his absence. They both lived in the high part ofMadinah. Both of them used to call at the Prophet alternativelyduring that time of suspense. Then one day I heard my friend,knock at the door saying: 'Open up! Open up!' I askedwondering, 'What's the matter? Has the Ghassanide come?'No it is more serious than that. The Messenger of Allah has deserted his wives.'
In another version, Umarsaid, 'We talked about Ghassanide preparations to invade us.When it was his turn to convey the news to me, he went down andreturned in the evening. He knocked at the door violently andsaid Is he sleeping?� I was terrified but I went out to meethim. �Something serious had taken place.� He said. �Has the Ghassaindes arrived?� Said I. �No,� he said, �it isgreater and more serious. The Messenger of Allah has divorced his wives.'
This state of too much alertnessmanifests clearly the seriousness of the situation that Muslimsbegan to experience. The seriousness of the situation wasconfirmed to a large degree by the hypocrites behaviour, whennews about the Byzantines� preparations reached Madinah. Thefact that the Messenger of Allah won all the battles hefought, and that no power on earth could make him terrified, andthat he had always proved to be able to overcome all theobstacles that stood in his way - did not prevent the hypocrites,who concealed evil in their hearts, from expecting an afflictionto fall upon the Muslims and Islam.
They used to harbour evil andill-intentions against the whole process of Islam and the Muslims.On grounds of illusory hopes of destroying this great religiousedifice, they erected a hotbed of conspiracy and intrigue in theform of a mosque � Masjid-e-Darar (the mosque of harm).They approached the Prophet with the request that heshould come and consecrate the place by praying in it himself. Ashe was at the moment about to start for Tabuk, he deferredcompliance with their request till his return. Meanwhile he cameto know through Divine Revelation that it was not a Mosque fordevotion and prayer but a meeting place for the anti-Islamicelements. On his return, therefore, the Prophet sent a party to demolishthe new structure.
Particular News about theByzantine and
A magnified image of theprominent danger threatening the Muslims life was carried to themby the Nabateans who brought oil from Ash-Sham to Madinah. Theycarried news about Heraclius preparations and equipment of anenormous army counting over forty thousand fighters besides Lukham, Judham and other tribes allied to the Byzantines. Theysaid that its vanguard had already reached Al-Balq�. Thus wasthe grave situation standing in ambush for the Muslims. Thegeneral situation was aggravated seriously by other adversefactors of too much hot weather, drought and the rough and ruggeddistance they had to cover in case they decided to encounter theimminent danger.
The Messenger of Allah's concept and estimationof the situation and its development was more precise andaccurate than all others. He thought that if he tarried or dealtpassively with the situation in such a way that might enable theByzantines to paddle through the Islamic controlled provinces orto go as far as Madinah, this would � amid these circumstances� leave the most awful impression on Islam as well as on theMuslims� military credibility.
The pre-Islamic beliefs andtraditions (Al-Jahiliyah) which were at that time dyingbecause of the strong decisive blow that they had already had atHunain, could have had a way to come back to life once again insuch an environment. The hypocrites who were conspiring againstthe Muslims so that they might stab them in the back whereasByzantines would attack them from the front. If such a thing cameto light and they succeeded in their evil attempts, the Prophetand his Companions efforts to spread Islam would collapse andtheir profits which were the consequences of successive andconstant fights and invasions would be invalidated. The Messengerof Allah realisedall that very well. So in spite of the hardships and droughtthat Muslims were suffering from � the Prophet was determined that theMuslims should invade the Byzantines and fight a decisive battleat their own borders. He was determined not to tarry at all inorder to thwart any Roman attempt to approach the land of Islam.
When the Messenger of Allah had made up his mind andtook his final decision, he ordered his Companions to get readyfor war and sent for the Makkans and the other Arab tribes askingfor their assistance.
Contrary to his habit ofconcealing his real intention of the invasion by means ofdeclaring a false one, he announced openly his intention ofmeeting the Byzantines and fighting them. He cleared thesituation to his people so that they would get ready, and urgedthem to fight in the way of Allah. On this occasion a part of SuratBara�a (Chapter 9 � The Repentance) was sent down by Allah,urging them to steadfastness and stamina.
On the other hand, the Messengerof Allah cherishedthem to pay charities and to spend the best of their fortunes inthe way of Allah.
No sooner had the Muslims heardthe voice of the Messenger of Allah calling them to fightthe Byzantines than they rushed to comply with his orders. Withgreat speed they started getting ready for war. Tribes andphratries from here and there began pouring in Madinah. Almostall the Muslims responded positively. Only those who had weaknessat their hearts favoured to stay behind. They were only threepeople. Even the needy and the poor who could not afford a ridecame to the Messenger of Allah asking for one so thatthey would be able to share in the fight against the Byzantines.But when he said:
The Muslims raced to spend outmoney and to pay charities to provide this invasion. �Uthman,for instance, who had already rigged two hundred, saddled camelsto travel to Ash-Sham, presented them all with two hundred ounces(of gold) as charity. He also fetched a thousand dinars and castthem all into the lap of the Messenger of All�h , who turned them overand said: 'From this day on nothing will harm �Uthmanregardless of what he does.' Again andagain �Uthman gave till his charity toped to nine hundredcamels and a hundred horses, besides the money he paid.
Abdur Rahman bin �Awf, on hisside, paid two hundred silver ounces, whereas Abu Bakr paid thewhole money he had and left nothing but Allah and His Messengeras a fortune for his family. �Umar paid half his fortune. Al-�Abbasgifted a lot of money. Talhah, Sa�d bin �Ubadah and Muhammadbin Maslamah, gave money for the welfare of the invasion. �Asimbin �Adi, on his turn, offered ninety camel-burdens of dates.People raced to pay little and much charities alike. One of themgave the only half bushel (or the only bushel) he owned. Womenshared in this competition by giving the things they owned; suchas musk, armlets, anklets, ear-rings and rings. No one abstainedfrom spending out money, or was too mean to grant money oranything except the hypocrites:
The Muslim Army is leavingfor Tabuk:
Upon accomplishing the equipmentof the army, the Messenger of Allah ordained that Muhammadbin Maslamah Al-Ansari should be appointed over Madinah � inanother version Siba� bin �Arftah. To �Ali bin Abu Talib heentrusted his family's safety and affairs and ordered him tostay with them. This move made the hypocrites undervalue �Ali,so he followed the Messenger of All�h and caught up with him.But the Prophet made �Ali turn back to Madinah after saying:'Would it not suffice you to be my successor in the way thatAaron (Harun) was to Moses�?' Then he proceeded saying:'But no Prophet succeeds me.'
On Thursday, the Messenger ofAllah marchednorthwards to Tabuk. The army that numbered thirty thousandfighters was a great one, when compared with the previous armiesof Islam. Muslims had never marched with such a great numberbefore.
Despite all the gifts of wealthand mounts the army was not perfectly equipped. The shortage ofprovisions and mounts was so serious that eighteen men mountedone camel alternatively. As for provisions, members of the armyat times had to eat the leaves of trees till their lips gotswollen. Some others had to slaughter camels � though they wereso dear � so that they could drink the water of their stomach;that is why that army was called 'The army of distress'.
On their way to Tabuk, the armyof Islam passed by Al-Hijr � which was the native land ofThamud who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley; that is 'Al-QuraValley' of today. They watered from its well but later theMessenger of Allah told them not to drink of that water, nor perform the ablutionwith it. The dough they made, he asked them to feed their camelswith. He forbade them to eat anything whatsoever of it. As analternative he told them to water from that well which ProphetSalih�s she-camel used to water from.
On the authority of Ibn �Umar:'Upon passing by Al-Hijr the Prophet said:
Then he raised his head up andaccelerated his strides till he passed the valley out.'
Shortage of water and the army�sneed to it made them complain to the Messenger of Allah about that. So hesupplicated Allah, who sent a rainful cloud. It rained and soall people drank and supplied themselves with their need of water.
When they drew near Tabuk, theProphet said: 'If Allah will, tomorrow you will arrive atTabuk spring. You will not get there before daytime. So whoeverreaches it should not touch its water; but wait till I come.'Mu�adh said: 'When we reached the spring it used to gushforth some water. We found that two men had already preceded usto it. The Messenger of Allah asked them: �Have youtouched its water?� They replied: �Yes�. He said what Allahinspired him to say, then he scooped up little water of thatspring, thin stream which gathered together, he washed his faceand hand with it and poured it back into it; consequently plentyof water spouted out of it so people watered. �Mu�adh�,said the Messenger of Allah, �if you were doomed to live longlife you will see in here fields full of vegetation.�'
On the way to Tabuk, or as soonas they reached Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah said: �Severe windwill blow tonight, so none of you should stand up. Whoever has acamel should tie it up.� Later on when the strong wind blew,one of the men stood up and the wind carried him away to Tai�Mountain.
All the way long the Messengerof Allah wasintent on the performance of the combined prayer of noon and theafternoon; and so did he with sunset and evening prayers. Hisprayers for both were either pre-time or post-time prayers.
The Army of Islam at Tabuk:
Arriving at Tabuk and campingthere, the Muslim army was ready to face the enemy. There, theMessenger of Allah delivered an eloquent speech that included the most inclusivewords. In that speech he urged the Muslims to seek the welfare ofthis world and the world to come. He warned and cherished themand gave them good tidings. By doing that he cherished those whowere broken in spirits, and blocked up the gap of shortage andmess they were suffering from due to lack of supplies, food andother substances.
Upon learning of the Muslims�march, the Byzantines and their allies were so terrified thatnone of them dared set out to fight. On the contrary theyscattered inside their territory. It brought, in itself, a goodcredit to the Muslim forces. That had gained military reputationin the mid and remote lands of Arabian Peninsula. The great andserious political profits that the Muslim forces had obtained,were far better than the ones they could have acquired if the twoarmies had been engaged in military confrontation.
The Head of Ailah, Yahna binRawbah came to the Messenger of Allah , made peace with him andpaid him the tribute (Al-Jizya). Both of Jarba� andAdhruh peoples paid him tribute, as well. So the Messenger of Allah gave each aguarantee letter, similar to Yahna�s, in which he says:
This is a guarantee of protection from Allah and Muhammad the Prophet, the Messenger of Allah, to Yahna bin Rawbah and the people of Ailah; their ships, their caravans on land and sea shall have the custody of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad, he and whosoever are with him of Ash-Sham people and those of the sea. Whosoever contravenes this treaty, his wealth shall not save him; it shall be the fair prize of him that takes it. Now it should not be lawful to hinder the men from any springs which they have been in the habit of frequenting, nor from any journeys they desire to make, whether by sea or by land.'
The Messenger of Allah dispatched Khalid bin Al-Waleedat the head of four hundred and fifty horsemen to �UkaidirDumat Al-Jandal and said to him: 'You will see him huntingoryxes.' So when Khalid drew near his castle and was as faras an eye-sight range, he saw the oryxes coming out rubbing theirhorns against the castle gate. As it was a moony night Khalidcould see Ukaidir come out to hunt them, so he captured him �though he was surrounded by his men � and brought him back tothe Messenger of Allah , who spared his life andmade peace with him for the payment of two thousand camels, eighthundred heads of cattle, four hundred armours and four hundredlances. He obliged him to recognize the duty of paying tributeand charged him with collecting it from Dumat, Tabuk, Ailah andTaima�.
The tribes, who used to ally theByzantines, became quite certain that their dependence oinn theirformer masters came to an end. Therefore they turned into beingpro-Muslims. The Islamic state had therefore enlarged its bordersto an extent that it, touched the Byzantines and their agentsborders. So we see that the Byzantine agents role was over.
Returning to Madinah:
The Muslim army returned fromTabuk victoriously, undeceived or wronged. That was because Allahhad sufficed them the evils of fight.
On the way back and at amountain road, twelve hypocrites sought the Prophet's life andthat was while he was passing along that mountain road with onlyAmmar holding the rein of his she-camel and Hudhaifa bin Al-Yamandriving it, at the time that people had already gone down intothe bottom of the valley.
The hypocrites seized thatopportunity to seek the Prophet's life. As the Messenger of Allah and his twocompanions were moving along, they heard thrusts of people comingtowards him from behind with their faces veiled. Hudhaifa, whowas sent by the Prophet to see what was going on, saw them andstroke their mounts� faces with a crook in his hand and Allahcast fear into their hearts. They fled away and overtook theirpeople.
However, Hudhaifa named them tothe Messenger of Allah and informed him oftheir intentions. So that was why Hudhaifa was called the 'confidant'of the Messenger of Allah . About this event Allah,the Exalted says:
When his headquarters, Madinah,began to loom at the horizon, the Prophet said: 'This is acheerful sight. This is Uhud, which is a mountain, we like it andit likes us.' When the Madinese learnt of their arrival theyset out to meet the army. Women, youths, youngsters and smallchildren went out of town to celebrate their home-returnwholeheartedly singing:
Thanks is due to us, as long as a supplicator invokes to Allah..'
The Messenger of Allah 's march to Tabuk wasin Rajab and his return in Ramadan. So we see that this Ghazwahtook fifty days, twenty days of which were spent in Tabuk and theothers on the way to and fro. Tabuk Invasion was the last onemade by the Prophet .
The People Who lagged Behind:
Due to its particularcircumstances, this invasion was a peculiar severe trial providedby Allah only to try the believers�Faith and sort them out ofothers. This is Allah's permanent Will in such circumstances.In this respect He says:
Lagging and hanging back fromfull participation in that invasion amounted to the degree ofhypocrisy. Whenever the Messenger of Allah was informed of a man'slingering, he would say: 'Leave him alone! If Allah knowshim to be good He will enable him to follow you; but if he werenot so, Allah would relieve us of him.'
Nobody stayed behind exceptthose who were either hindered by a serious excuse or thehypocrites who told lies to Allah and His Messenger.
Some of those hypocriteslingering was due to an excuse based on forgery and delusion.Some others tarried but didn't ask for an instant permission.But there were three believers who unjustifiably lingered. Theywere the ones whom Allah tried their Faith, but later on Heturned to them in mercy and accepted their repentance.
As soon as the Messenger of Allah had enteredMadinah, he prayed two Raka then he sat to receive hispeople. The hypocrites who were over eighty men
As for the three faithful believers ' Kaab bin Malik, Murara bin Ar-Rabi, and Hilalbin Omaiyah ' who favoured telling the truth, the Messenger of Allah bade hisCompanions not to talk to them.
Consequently they were subjectto a severe boycott and were excluded from the life of thecommunity. Everybody turned them their back. So they felt as ifthe whole land had become constrained to them in spite of itsspaciousness and they felt awkward and uneasy. The hard timesthey lived and which lasted for over forty days were towered byan order to them to forsake their wives. After fifty daysboycott Allah turned to them and revealed that in Quran:
Allah's turning to them was agreat joy for both Muslims and the three concerned. The joy ofthe stayers behind was unaccountable in aim and degree. It wasthe happiest day in their lives. The good tiding cherished themand filled their hearts with delight. As for those who lingereddue to disability or sickness or any other serious excuse, Allah,the Exalted said about them:
When he approached Madinah, theMessenger of Allah said:
The Invasion of Tabuk and itsFar-Reaching Ramifications:
The effect of this invasion isgreat as regards extending and confirming the Muslimssinfluence and domination on the Arabian Peninsula. It was quiteobvious to everybody that no power but Islam's would live longamong the Arabs. The remainders of Jahiliyin andhypocrites who used to conspire steadily against the Muslimsand who perpetually relied on Byzantine power when they were inneed of support or help these people lost their expectationsand desires of ever reclaiming their ex-influence. Realizing thatthere was no way out and that they were to submit to the faitaccompli, they gave up their attempts.
From that time on, hypocriteswere no longer treated leniently or even gently by the Muslims.Allah not only bade Muslims to treat them severely but He alsoforbade them to take their gift charities or perform prayer ontheir dead, or ask Allah's forgiveness for them or even visittheir tombs. Allh bade the Muslims to demolish the mosque,which they verily appointed and used as a hiding place where theymight practise their plots, conspiracy and deceit. Some Quranicverses were sent down disclosing them publicly and utterly sothat everybody in Madinah got to know their reality.
The great impact that thisinvasion produced could be perceived in of the great number ofdelegations who came successively to meet the Messenger of Allah. Naturally,deputations used to come to meet him at the end of an invasionparticularly after Makkah Conquest but theywere not as many as these nor were they as frequent as they werethen in the wake of Tabuk event. It was certainly the greatest.
The Qur��nic VersesRelating to this Invasion:
Many a verse of Bara�a(Tauba)Chapter handling the event of Tabuk wererevealed. Some verses were revealed before the march, whileothers after setting out for Tabuk, i.e. in the context of thebattle. Some other verses were also revealed on the Prophet'asarrival in Madinah. All of which covered the incidents thatfeatured this invasion: the immanent circumstances of the battle,exposure of the hypocrites, the prerogatives and special rankearmarked for the strivers in the cause of Allah, acceptance ofthe repentance of the truthful believers who slackened and thosewho hung back, etc.
Some Important Events thatfeatured that Year:
During this year many events ofgreat significance took place. They were:
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