Horse racing information changes in an instant: Scratches, weather, second calls, carry weights, odds, and penalties. A flash on the board and you may need to change strategy and your bets. If something’s going to affect a horse race, you need to know it. Horse racing is a popular sport in South Africa that can be traced back to 1797. The first recorded race club meeting took place five years later in 1802. The national horse racing body is known as the National Horseracing Authority and was founded in 1882.
Often called the “Sport of Kings,” the history of horse racing has its origins in the ancient civilizations throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, the nomadic tribes of Asia, and in European mythology. Archaeological records reveal that equestrian events, such as chariot races or contests between horses and riders prevailed in the Syrian, Egyptian, and Grecian civilizations. Horse racing events also took place during the Olympic Games during the sixth century BC.
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Although many countries have developed rules and traditions governing horse racing, the premise of the sport has not changed over time. Horse racing will always define a competitive event between horses and riders. A few examples of horse racing events include thoroughbred, flat, saddle, harness, jumping, and endurance competitions. Most of the events outline the specific types of breeds that can run, the distances of the tracks, surface types, course specifications, distance and time durations, and the weight of the rider.
Globally, horse racing represents one of the most popular spectator sports among sports fans, proven by the fact horse racing enthusiasts wager billions of dollars annually. Each year, approximately 50 countries hold racing events whose pari-mutuel wagering exceeds $100 billion annually.
The worldwide popularity of horse racing has been revealed by the certification of 360 horse racing tracks in Australia (the most of any country); 250 racing sites in France; 200 tracks in the U.S. and its territories; and 60 tracks throughout the UK. In addition, numerous international organizations have been founded and established to preserve and promote this timeless and traditional sport.
Why Australia is the most popular venue for horse racing enthusiasts? While gambling and the winning of money is, no doubt, a draw, Australians also have other reasons why they love the ponies.
Australians are known for their love of sports the world over. People in the country are either spectators or participants. Therefore, not all Australians bet on the horses. Some like to attend a race because they enjoy the activity. Australians, as well as other sporting enthusiasts, cannot help but admire the athletic ability of racing horses. Australians love horse racing as much as they like watching the Olympics, and often get caught up in seeing horses compete week after week at various sites in the country.
Outside of Australia, most people do not realize that horse racing is one of the oldest sports in the land down under. Professional horse racing has taken place in Australia since the early part of the nineteenth century. Horse racing was therefore popular before Australians got involved in national sports, such as the NRL, AFL, and rugby. Of the older traditional spectator sports, both cricket and horse racing are standout favorites among Australians.
Moreover, Australian’s love spending a day at their many horse racing tracks. Although they can see horse races on TV, nothing excites Aussies more than enjoying a fun day at the horse track with their friends and family. They don’t have to wait for the yearly running of the Melbourne Cup in November either. They can watch horses race at one of a variety of first-class race tracks throughout the country any time.
Indeed, local horse racing comprises a full-day event. Even if you do not spend the entire day at the track, you can still see some local horse racing live. Big races, such as the Melbourne Cup or Cox Plate, only serve to fuel the interest and thrills experienced by horse racing enthusiasts.
Aussies are so mesmerized by the sport they will stop whatever they are doing to watch a 4-minute horse race. In fact, the country has people who actually make their living by wagering on horses and therefore boasts a high number of professional punters.
Now that Australians can wager on the horses, as well, from home, the sport will prove to be even a stronger draw for veteran and beginning betters alike. No one can deny that the future of horse racing looks bright throughout the world, especially in the horse-friendly country of Australia.
What do you think about professional horse racing? Do you actively watch and bet on the sport? What is your favorite horse racing event in the world? According to horse racing experts, the most famous horse races and events include the following:
• The Cheltenham Festival
– A prestigious gathering and part of the National Hunt racing calendar.
• The Melbourne Cup
– The Australian race, which started in 1861, is promoted as the “race that stops the nation.” It is noted as being the most prestigious 2-mile handicap internationally.
• The Dubai World Cup
– Recently introduced in 1996, the Dubai World Cup in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is as much about horse racing as it is about fashion and style.
• The Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe
– This horse racing event, held in Paris, France, usually takes place the first Saturday in October. The winner of the event receives one of the richest payouts of all sporting events worldwide. As of 2020, the amount awarded currently stands at $10,500,000.
• The Breeder’s Cup
– This thoroughbred race takes place in a different location each year. Awards amount to over $30 million during the two-day annual event.
• The Belmont Stakes
– Held in Belmont, New York each June, the Belmont Stakes normally represents the final race in the Triple Crown Series of horse racing.
• The Grand National
– Held yearly in Aintree, England, this National Hunt horse race features 30 fences, all which must be jumped, to complete the 2-mile course with a straightaway. Amateur jockeys and trainers are encouraged to enter and participate in the event.
• The Preakness
– Held at the Pimlico Racetrack each year in Baltimore, this racing event usually takes place on the third Saturday during May. It is the noted second leg of the famous Triple Crown event.
• The Royal Ascot
– This race, which takes place in England, is a fancy gathering – an opportunity for the English gentry and ladies to show off their prized thoroughbreds. Attendees must follow a strict dress code and wear the proper attire. The four-day event is comprised of 24 separate races. Closely associated with the Royal Family, the race is held only 6 miles from Windsor Castle.
• The Kentucky Derby
– The Kentucky Derby is considered number one among famous horse races in the world. All horse race lovers know that the race is the first event held that starts off the Triple Crown event. However, the 146th running of the Derby was held on September 5, 2020 rather than the first Saturday in May because of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The race, which takes place at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky, is open to 3-year-old thoroughbreds and is considered the king of all horse races.
If you enjoy horses and racing, we invite you to read more about the horses, jockeys, and events that make the sport as timeless as it is exciting.
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Horse racing, sport of runninghorses at speed, mainly Thoroughbreds with a rider astride or Standardbreds with the horse pulling a conveyance with a driver. These two kinds of racing are called racing on the flat and harness racing, respectively. Some races on the flat—such as steeplechase, point-to-point, and hurdle races—involve jumping. This article is confined to Thoroughbred horse racing on the flat without jumps. Racing on the flat with horses other than Thoroughbreds is described in the article quarter-horse racing.
Horse racing is one of the oldest of all sports, and its basic concept has undergone virtually no change over the centuries. It developed from a primitive contest of speed or stamina between two horses into a spectacle involving large fields of runners, sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment, and immense sums of money, but its essential feature has always been the same: the horse that finishes first is the winner. In the modern era, horse racing developed from a diversion of the leisure class into a huge public-entertainment business. By the first decades of the 21st century, however, the sport’s popularity had shrunk considerably.
Knowledge of the first horse race is lost in prehistory. Both four-hitch chariot and mounted (bareback) races were held in the Olympic Games of Greece over the period 700–40 bce. Horse racing, both of chariots and of mounted riders, was a well-organized public entertainment in the Roman Empire. The history of organized racing in other ancient civilizations is not very firmly established. Presumably, organized racing began in such countries as China, Persia, Arabia, and other countries of the Middle East and in North Africa, where horsemanship early became highly developed. Thence came too the Arabian, Barb, and Turk horses that contributed to the earliest European racing. Such horses became familiar to Europeans during the Crusades (11th–13th century ce), from which they brought those horses back.
Racing in medievalEngland began when horses for sale were ridden in competition by professional riders to display the horses’ speed to buyers. During the reign of Richard the Lionheart (1189–99), the first known racing purse was offered, £40, for a race run over a 3-mile (4.8-km) course with knights as riders. In the 16th century Henry VIII imported horses from Italy and Spain (presumably Barbs) and established studs at several locations. In the 17th century James I sponsored meetings in England. His successor, Charles I, had a stud of 139 horses when he died in 1649.
Charles II (reigned 1660–85) became known as “the father of the English turf” and inaugurated the King’s Plates, races for which prizes were awarded to the winners. His articles for these races were the earliest national racing rules. The horses raced were six years old and carried 168 pounds (76 kg), and the winner was the first to win two 4-mile (6.4-km) heats. The patronage of Charles II established Newmarket as the headquarters of English racing.
In France the first documented horse race was held in 1651 as the result of a wager between two noblemen. During the reign of Louis XIV (1643–1715), racing based on gambling was prevalent. Louis XVI (reigned 1774–93) organized a jockey club and established rules of racing by royal decree that included requiring certificates of origin for horses and imposing extra weight on foreign horses.
Organized racing in North America began with the British occupation of New Amsterdam (now New York City) in 1664. Col. Richard Nicolls, commander of the British troops, established organized racing in the colonies by laying out a 2-mile (3.2-km) course on the plains of Long Island (called Newmarket after the British racecourse) and offering a silver cup to the best horses in the spring and fall seasons. From the beginning, and continuing until the Civil War, the hallmark of excellence for the American Thoroughbred was stamina, rather than speed. After the Civil War, speed became the goal and the British system the model.
The earliest races were match races between two or at most three horses, the owners providing the purse, a simple wager. An owner who withdrew commonly forfeited half the purse, later the whole purse, and bets also came under the same “play or pay” rule. Agreements were recorded by disinterested third parties, who came to be called keepers of the match book. One such keeper at Newmarket in England, John Cheny, began publishing An Historical List of All Horse-Matches Run (1729), a consolidation of match books at various racing centres, and this work was continued annually with varying titles, until in 1773 James Weatherby established it as the Racing Calendar, which was continued thereafter by his family.
By the mid-18th century the demand for more public racing had produced open events with larger fields of runners. Eligibility rules were developed based on the age, sex, birthplace, and previous performance of horses and the qualifications of riders. Races were created in which owners were the riders (gentlemen riders), in which the field was restricted geographically to a township or county, and in which only horses that had not won more than a certain amount were entered. An act of the British Parliament of 1740 provided that horses entered had to be the bona fide property of the owners, thus preventing “ringers,” a superior horse entered fraudulently against inferior horses; horses had to be certified as to age; and there were penalties for rough riding.
Contemporary accounts identified riders (in England called jockeys—if professional—from the second half of the 17th century and later in French racing), but their names were not at first officially recorded. Only the names of winning trainers and riders were at first recorded in the Racing Calendar, but by the late 1850s all were named. This neglect of the riders is partly explained in that when races consisted of 4-mile heats, with the winning of two heats needed for victory, the individual rider’s judgment and skill were not so vital. As dash racing (one heat) became the rule, a few yards in a race gained importance, and, consequently, so did the rider’s skill and judgment in coaxing that advantage from his mount.
All horse racing on the flat except quarter-horse racing involves Thoroughbred horses. Thoroughbreds evolved from a mixture of Arab, Turk, and Barb horses with native English stock. Private studbooks had existed from the early 17th century, but they were not invariably reliable. In 1791 Weatherby published An Introduction to a General Stud Book, the pedigrees being based on earlier Racing Calendars and sales papers. After a few years of revision, it was updated annually. All Thoroughbreds are said to descend from three “Oriental” stallions (the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Barb, and the Byerly Turk, all brought to Great Britain, 1690–1730) and from 43 “royal” mares (those imported by Charles II). The preeminence of English racing and hence of the General Stud Book from 1791 provided a standard for judging a horse’s breeding (and thereby, at least to some degree, its racing qualities). In France the Stud Book Française (beginning in 1838) originally included two classifications: Orientale (Arab, Turk, and Barb) and Anglais (mixtures according to the English pattern), but these were later reduced to one class, chevaux de pur sang Anglais (“horses of pure English blood”). The American Stud Book dates from 1897 and includes foals from Canada, Puerto Rico, and parts of Mexico, as well as from the United States.
The long-standing reciprocity among studbooks of various countries was broken in 1913 by the Jersey Act passed by the English Jockey Club, which disqualified many Thoroughbred horses bred outside England or Ireland. The purpose of the act was ostensibly to protect the British Thoroughbred from infusions of North American (mainly U.S.) sprinting blood. After a rash of victories in prestigious English races by French horses with “tainted” American ancestry in the 1940s, the Jersey Act was rescinded in 1949.
The original King’s Plates were standardized races—all were for six-year-old horses carrying 168 pounds at 4-mile heats, a horse having to win two heats to be adjudged the winner. Beginning in 1751, five-year-olds carrying 140 pounds (63.5 kg) and four-year-olds carrying 126 pounds (57 kg) were admitted to the King’s Plates, and heats were reduced to 2 miles (3.2 km). Other racing for four-year-olds was well established by then, and a race for three-year-olds carrying 112 pounds (51 kg) in one 3-mile (4.8-km) heat was run in 1731. Heat racing for four-year-olds continued in the United States until the 1860s. By that time, heat racing had long since been overshadowed in Europe by dash racing, a “dash” being any race decided by only one heat, regardless of its distance.