Themes

Themes

Unit 5 Mid-Unit Quiz (After Lesson #5) – Form B PDF DOCUMENT. WORD ANSWER KEY. Add-on Unit 5.Coordinate Geometry Formula Practice (After Lesson 8) PDF DOCUMENT. WORD ANSWER KEY. CONTACT: Contact Us (914) 466-4327. Smith's class - April 8, 2016 by Christina Smith This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more.

Math with a Growth Mindset

Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, 'Does this make sense?' They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to *decontextualize*—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to *contextualize*, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

MP4: Model with mathematics.Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.

MP5: Use appropriate tools strategically.Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

MP6: Attend to precision.Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.

MP7: Look for and make use of structure.Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8 equals the well remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression *x*^{2} + 9*x* + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 - 3(*x* - *y*)^{2} as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers *x* and *y*.

Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (*y* - 2)/(*x* - 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (*x* - 1)(*x* + 1), (*x* - 1)(*x*^{2} + *x* + 1), and (*x* - 1)(*x*^{3} + *x*2 + *x* + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.

**Background:**

These resources are intended to be used at the beginning of a school year to introduce students to the idea that anyone can learn mathematics and to provide instructional activities to support students in developing mathematical habits of mind and a growth mindset.

“When students and educators have a growth mindset, they understand that intelligence can be developed. Students focus on improvement instead of worrying about how smart they are. They work hard to learn more and get smarter. Based on years of research by Stanford University’s Dr. Dweck, Lisa Blackwell Ph.D., and their colleagues, we know that students who learn this mindset show greater motivation in school, better grades, and higher test scores” (www.mindsetworks.com).

Through these activities, students will have the opportunity to explore growth mindsets and learn how the brain grows. Each day will begin with a Contemplate then Calculate activity in which students will look for structure to solve seemingly complicated problems. Then students will watch a video, read an article, or write a letter in order to better understand the importance of growth mindsets.

**Social Goals**

Students will understand the importance of a growth mindset (e.g., that math is not about talent or natural ability but is about thoughtful practice) and what it means to talk and listen. Students will also understand that class is where students practice thinking and doing math.

**Mathematical Goals**

- Students will learn the value of taking time to think about math and listen to how others make sense of their work to arrive at a common understanding.
- Students will build the habits of using precise language, practicing, and sharing their thoughts.

**Additional Resources**:

- Jo Boaler: Week of Inspirational Math: Series of lesson plans that include a video and activity.
- Enact this skit to allow students to identify growth and fixed mindsets in a math classroom, which includes two parts with discussion guides. ‘Cast’ your actors one or two days in advance so that they have a chance to read through the script beforehand.
- Distribute or post classroom norms or establish a custom version for your classroom.
- Additional Growth Mindset Lessons / Activities

**NOTE:** Activities and lesson plan ideas can vary based on schedules. Once the classroom norms are set and students are introduced to the concept of a growth mindset, the activities in subsequent themes can be completed throughout the year.

These resources are intended to be used at the beginning of a school year to introduce students to the idea that anyone can learn mathematics and to provide instructional activities to support students in developing mathematical habits of mind and a growth mindset.

These themes are intended to support how students view mathematics and their relationship to mathematics.

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